Los mejores ejemplos de Java

¿Que es Java?

Java es un lenguaje de programación desarrollado por Sun Microsystems en 1995, que luego fue adquirido por Oracle. Ahora es una plataforma completa con muchas API estándar, API de código abierto, herramientas y una enorme comunidad de desarrolladores.

Se utiliza para crear las soluciones empresariales más confiables tanto por empresas grandes como pequeñas. El desarrollo de aplicaciones de Android se realiza íntegramente con Java y su ecosistema.

Para obtener más información sobre los conceptos básicos de Java, lea esto y esto.

Versión

La última versión es Java 11, que se lanzó en 2018 con varias mejoras con respecto a la versión anterior, Java 10. Pero para todos los efectos, usaremos Java 8 en esta wiki para todos los tutoriales.

Java también se divide en varias "Ediciones":

  • SE - Standard Edition - para aplicaciones de servidor independientes y de escritorio
  • EE - Enterprise Edition - para desarrollar y ejecutar componentes Java que se ejecutan integrados en un servidor Java
  • ME - Micro Edition - para desarrollar y ejecutar aplicaciones Java en teléfonos móviles y dispositivos integrados

Instalación: ¿JDK o JRE?

Descargue los últimos binarios de Java del sitio web oficial. Aquí puede enfrentarse a una pregunta, ¿cuál descargar, JDK o JRE? JRE significa Java Runtime Environment, que es la máquina virtual Java dependiente de la plataforma para ejecutar códigos Java, y JDK significa Java Development Kit, que consta de la mayoría de las herramientas de desarrollo, lo más importante el compilador javacy también el JRE. Entonces, para un usuario promedio, JRE sería suficiente, pero como estaríamos desarrollando con Java, descargaríamos el JDK.

Instrucciones de instalación específicas de la plataforma

Ventanas

  • Descargue el archivo .msi correspondiente (x86 / i586 para 32 bits, x64 para 64 bits)
  • Ejecute el archivo .msi. Es un archivo ejecutable autoextraíble que instalará Java en su sistema.

Linux

  • Descargue el archivo tar.gz relevante para su sistema e instale:

bash $ tar zxvf jdk-8uversion-linux-x64.tar.gz

  • Las plataformas Linux basadas en RPM descargan el archivo .rpm relevante e instalan:

bash $ rpm -ivh jdk-8uversion-linux-x64.rpm

  • Los usuarios tienen la opción de instalar una versión de código abierto de Java, OpenJDK o Oracle JDK. Si bien OpenJDK está en desarrollo activo y sincronizado con Oracle JDK, solo difieren en materia de licencias. Sin embargo, pocos desarrolladores se quejan de la estabilidad de Open JDK.

Instrucciones para Ubuntu :

Instalación abierta de JDK:

bash sudo apt-get install openjdk-8-jdk

Instalación de Oracle JDK:

bash sudo add-apt-repository ppa:webupd8team/java sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install oracle-java8-installer

Mac

  • Descargue Mac OSX .dmg ejecutable desde Descargas de Oracle
  • O use Homebrew para instalar:
brew tap caskroom/cask brew install brew-cask brew cask install java

Verificar instalación

Verifique que Java se haya instalado correctamente en su sistema abriendo Símbolo del sistema (Windows) / Windows Powershell / Terminal (Mac OS y * Unix) y verificando las versiones del compilador y el tiempo de ejecución de Java:

$ java -version java version "1.8.0_66" Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_66-b17) Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.66-b17, mixed mode) $ javac -version javac 1.8.0_66

Tip : Si se produce un error del tipo “comando no encontrado” en cualquierajavaojavaco ambos, el pánico no haga, es sólo su PATH sistema no está configurado correctamente. Para Windows, consulte esta respuesta de StackOverflow o este artículo sobre cómo hacerlo. También hay guías para Ubuntu y Mac. Si aún no puede resolverlo, no se preocupe, ¡pregúntenos en nuestra sala Gitter!

JVM

Bien, ya que hemos terminado con las instalaciones, comencemos a comprender primero el meollo del ecosistema Java. Java es un lenguaje interpretado y compilado, es decir, el código que escribimos se compila en código de bytes y se interpreta para ejecutarse. Escribimos el código en archivos .java, Java los compila en códigos de bytes que se ejecutan en una máquina virtual Java o JVM para su ejecución. Estos códigos de bytes suelen tener una extensión .class.

Java es un lenguaje bastante seguro ya que no permite que su programa se ejecute directamente en la máquina. En cambio, su programa se ejecuta en una máquina virtual llamada JVM. Esta máquina virtual expone varias API para interacciones de máquina de bajo nivel que puede realizar, pero aparte de eso, no puede jugar con las instrucciones de la máquina explícitamente. Esto agrega una gran ventaja de seguridad.

Además, una vez que se compila su código de bytes, se puede ejecutar en cualquier máquina virtual Java. Esta Máquina Virtual depende de la máquina, es decir, tiene diferentes implementaciones para Windows, Linux y Mac. Pero su programa está garantizado para ejecutarse en cualquier sistema gracias a esta VM. Esta filosofía se llama "Escriba una vez, ejecute en cualquier lugar".

Hola Mundo!

Escribamos una aplicación de muestra de Hello World. Abra cualquier editor / IDE de su elección y cree un archivo HelloWorld.java.

public class HelloWorld { public static void main(String[] args) { // Prints "Hello, World" to the terminal window. System.out.println("Hello, World"); } }

NB ¡ Tenga en cuenta que el nombre del archivo Java debe ser exactamente el mismo nombre de la clase pública para poder compilar!

Ahora abra la terminal / Símbolo del sistema. Cambie su directorio actual en la terminal / Símbolo del sistema al directorio donde se encuentra su archivo. Y compila el archivo:

$ javac HelloWorld.java

¡Ahora ejecute el archivo usando el javacomando!

$ java HelloWorld Hello, World

Congrats! Your first Java program has run successfully. Here we are just printing a string passing it to the API System.out.println. We will cover all the concepts in the code, but you are welcome to take a closer look! If you have any doubt or need additional help, feel free to contact us anytime in our Gitter Chatroom!

Documentation

Java is heavily documented, as it supports huge amounts of API’s. If you are using any major IDE such as Eclipse or IntelliJ IDEA, you would find the Java Documentation included within.

Also, here is a list of free IDEs for Java coding:

  • NetBeans
  • Eclipse
  • IntelliJ IDEA
  • Android Studio
  • BlueJ
  • jEdit
  • Oracle JDeveloper

Basic Operations

Java supports the following operations on variables:

  • Arithmetic : Addition (+), Subtraction (-), Multiplication (*), Division (/), Modulus (%),Increment (++),Decrement (--).
  • String concatenation: + can be used for String concatenation, but subtraction - on a String is not a valid operation.
  • Relational: Equal to (==), Not Equal to (!=), Greater than (>), Less than (<), Greater than or equal to (>=), Less than or equal to (<=)
  • Bitwise: Bitwise And (&), Bitwise Or (|), Bitwise XOR (^), Bitwise Compliment (~), Left shift (<<), Right Shift (>>), Zero fill right shift (>>>)
  • Logical: Logical And (&&), Logical Or (||), Logical Not (!)
  • Assignment: =, +=, -=, *=, /=, %=, <<=, >>=, &=, ^=, |=
  • Others: Conditional/Ternary(?:), instanceof

While most of the operations are self-explanatory, the Conditional (Ternary) Operator works as follows:

expression that results in boolean output ? return this value if true : return this value if false;

Example: True Condition:

 int x = 10; int y = (x == 10) ? 5 : 9; // y will equal 5 since the expression x == 10 evaluates to true 

False Condition:

 int x = 25; int y = (x == 10) ? 5 : 9; // y will equal 9 since the expression x == 10 evaluates to false

The instance of operator is used for type checking. It can be used to test if an object is an instance of a class, a subclass or an interface. General format- *object instance of class/subclass/interface*

Here is a program to illustrate instanceof operator:

 Person obj1 = new Person(); Person obj2 = new Boy(); // As obj is of type person, it is not an // instance of Boy or interface System.out.println("obj1 instanceof Person: " + (obj1 instanceof Person)); /*it returns true since obj1 is an instance of person */ 

Variable Examples

Variables store values. They are the most basic entity used to store data such as text, numbers, etc. in a program.

In Java, variables are strongly typed, which means you have to define the type for each variable whenever you declare it. Otherwise, the compiler will throw an error at compile time. Therefore, each variable has an associated ’data-type’ of one of the following:

Primitive Type: int, short, char, long, boolean, byte, float, double

Wrapper Type: Integer, Short, Char, Long, Boolean, Byte, Float, Double

Reference Type: String, StringBuilder, Calendar, ArrayList, etc.

You may have noticed that the Wrapper Type consists of types spelled exactly like the Primitive Type, except for the capitalised alphabet in the begining (like the Reference Type). This is because the Wrapper Types are actually a part of the more general Reference Types, but closely linked with their primitive counterparts via autoboxing and unboxing. For now, you just need to know that such a ‘Wrapper Type’ exists.

Typically, you can declare (i.e., create) variables as per the following syntax: ;

// Primitive Data Type int i; // Reference Data Type Float myFloat;

You can assign a value to the variable either simultaneously when you are declaring it (which is called initialisation), or anywhere in the code after you have declared it. The symbol = is used for the same.

// Initialise the variable of Primitive Data Type 'int' to store the value 10 int i = 10; double amount = 10.0; boolean isOpen = false; char c = 'a'; // Note the single quotes //Variables can also be declared in one statement, and assigned values later. int j; j = 10; // initiates an Float object with value 1.0 // variable myFloat now points to the object Float myFloat = new Float(1.0); //Bytes are one of types in Java and can be //represented with this code int byteValue = 0B101; byte anotherByte = (byte)0b00100001;

As evident from the above example, variables of Primitive type behave slightly differently from variables of Reference (& Wrapper) type - while Primitive variables store the actual value, Reference variables refer to an ‘object’ containing the actual value. You can find out more in the sections linked below.

Array

An Array is a collection of values (or objects) of similar datatypes (primitive and reference both form of datatypes are allowed) held in sequencial memory addresses. An Array is used to store a collection of similar data types. Arrays always start with the index of 0 and are instantiated to a set number of indexes. All the variables in the array must be of the same type, declared at instantiation.

Syntax:

dataType[] arrayName; // preferred way

Here, java datatype[] describes that all the variables stated after it will be instantiated as arrays of the specified datatype. So, if we want to instantiate more arrays of the similar datatype, we just have to add them after the specified java arrayName(Don’t forget to separate them through commas only). An example is given below in the next section for reference.

dataType arrayName[]; // works but not preferred way

Here, java datatype describes only that the variables stated after it belong to that datatype. Besides, java [] after the variable name describes that the variable is an array of the specified datatype (not just a value or object of that datatype). So, if we want to instantiate more arrays of the similar datatype, we will add the variables names just after the one already specified, separated by commas and each time we will have to add java [] after the variable name otherwise the variable will be instantiated as an ordinary value-storing variable (not an array). For better understanding an example is given in the next section.

Code snippets of above syntax:

double[] list1, list2; // preferred way

Above code snippet instantiates 2 arrays of double type names list1 and list2.

double list1[], list2; // works but not preferred way

Above code snippet an array of datatype double named list1 and a simple variable of datatype double named list2 (Don’t be confused with the name list2. Variables names have nothing to do with the type of variable).

Note: The style double list[] is not preferred as it comes from the C/C++ language and was adopted in Java to accommodate C/C++ programmers. Additionally it’s more readable: you can read that it’s a “double array named list” other than “a double called list that is an array”

Creating Arrays:

dataType[] arrayName = new dataType[arraySize];

Code snippets of the above syntax:

double[] List = new double[10];

Another way to create an Array:

dataType[] arrayName = {value_0, value_1, ..., value_k};

Code snippets of above syntax:

double[] list = {1, 2, 3, 4}; The code above is equivalent to: double[] list = new double[4]; *IMPORTANT NOTE: Please note the difference between the types of brackets that are used to represent arrays in two different ways.

Accessing Arrays:

arrayName[index]; // gives you the value at the specified index

Code snippets of above syntax:

System.out.println(list[1]);

Output:

2.0

Modifying Arrays:

arrayName[index] = value; 

Note: You cannot change the size or type of an array after initialising it. Note: You can however reset the array like so

arrayName = new dataType[] {value1, value2, value3};

Size of Arrays:

It’s possible to find the number of elements in an array using the “length attribute”. It should be noticed here that java length is an attribute of every array i.e. a variable name storing the length of the variable. It must not be confused for a method of array since the name is same as the java length() method corresponding to String classes.

int[] a = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}; // declare array System.out.println(a.length); //prints 5

Code snippets of above syntax:

list[1] = 3; // now, if you access the array like above, it will output 3 rather than 2

Example of code:

int[] a = {4, 5, 6, 7, 8}; // declare array for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++){ // loop goes through each index System.out.println(a[i]); // prints the array }

Output:

 4 5 6 7 8

Multi-dimensional Arrays

Two-dimensional arrays (2D arrays) can be thought of as a table with rows and columns. Though this representation is only a way to visualize the array for better problem-solving. The values are actually stored in sequential memory addresses only.

int M = 5; int N = 5; double[][] a = new double [M][N]; //M = rows N = columns for(int i = 0; i < M; i++) { for (int j = 0; j < N; j++) { //Do something here at index } }

This loop will execute M ^ N times and will build this:

0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4

0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4

[ 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 ]

Similarly a 3D array can also be made. It can be visualised as a cuboid instead of a rectangle(as above), divided into smaller cubes with each cube storing some value. It can be initialised follows:

int a=2, b=3, c=4; int[][][] a=new int[a][b][c];

In a similar manner, one can an array of as many dimensions as he/she wishes to but visualizing an array of more than 3 dimensions is difficult to visualize in a particular way.

Jagged Arrays

Jagged arrays are multi-dimensional arrays that have a set number of rows but a varying number of columns. Jagged arrays are used to conserve memory use of the array. Here is a code example:

int[][] array = new int[5][]; //initialize a 2D array with 5 rows array[0] = new int[1]; //creates 1 column for first row array[1] = new int[2]; //creates 2 columns for second row array[2] = new int[5]; //creates 5 columns for third row array[3] = new int[5]; //creates 5 columns for fourth row array[4] = new int[5]; //creates 5 columns for fifth row

Output:

0

0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4

[ 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 ]

Control Flow

Control flow statements are exactly what the term means. They are statements that alter execution flow based on decisions, loops and branching so that the program can conditionally execute blocks of code.

Primarily, Java has the following constructs for flow control:

  • if
  • if...else
if(  ){ //code enters this block if the above expression is 'true' }
if(  ){ //execute this block if the expression is 'true' } else{ //execute this block if the expression is 'false' }

switch

Switch is an alternative for the if...else construct when there are multiple values and cases to check against.

switch(  ){ case :  break; case :  break; default:  }

Note: The program flow falls through the next case if the break statement is missing. e.g. Let’s say you say the standard ‘Hello’ to everyone at office, but you are extra nice to the girl who sits next to you and sound grumpy to your boss. The way to represent would be something like:

switch(person){ case 'boss': soundGrumpy(); break; case 'neighbour': soundExtraNice(); break; case 'colleague': soundNormal(); break; default: soundNormal(); }
Note: The `default` case runs when none of the `case` matches. Remember that when a case has no `break` statement, it `falls through` to the next case and will continue to the subsequent `cases` till a `break` is encountered. Because of this, make sure that each case has a `break` statement. The `default` case does not require a `break` statement. 
  • nested statements

Any of the previous control flows can be nested. Which means you can have nested if,if..elseandswitch..casestatements. i.e., you can have any combination of these statements within the other and there is no limitation to the depth ofnesting.

For example, let’s consider the following scenario:

  • If you have less than 25 bucks, you get yourself a cup of coffee.
  • If you have more than 25 bucks but less than 60 bucks, you get yourself a decent meal.
  • If you have more than 60 bucks but less than a 100, you get yourself a decent meal along with a glass of wine.
  • However, when you have more than a 100 bucks, depending on who you are with, you either go for a candle lit dinner (with your wife) or you go to a sports bar (with your friends).

One of the ways to represent this will be:

int cash = 150; String company = "friends"; if( cash < 25 ){ getCoffee(); } else if( cash < 60 ){ getDecentMeal(); } else if( cash < 100 ){ getDecentMeal(); getGlassOfWine(); } else { switch(company){ case "wife": candleLitDinner(); break; case "friends": meetFriendsAtSportsBar(); break; default: getDecentMeal(); } }

In this example, meetFriendsAtSportsBar() will be executed.

Loops

Whenever you need to execute a block of code multiple times, a loop will often come in handy.

Java has 4 types of loops:

While Loop

The while loop repeatedly executes the block of statements until the condition specified within the parentheses evaluates to false. For instance:

while (some_condition_is_true) { // do something }

Each ‘iteration’ (of executing the block of statements) is preceeded by the evaluation of the condition specified within the parentheses - The statements are executed only if the condition evaluates to true. If it evaluates to false, the execution of the program resumes from the the statement just after the whileblock.

Note: For the while loop to start executing, you’d require the condition to be true initially. However, to exit the loop, you must do something within the block of statements to eventually reach an iteration when the condition evaluates to false (as done below). Otherwise the loop will execute forever. (In practice, it will run until the JVM runs out of memory.)

Example

In the following example, the expression is given by iter_While < 10. We increment iter_While by 1each time the loop is executed. The whileloop breaks wheniter_Whilevalue reaches 10.

int iter_While = 0; while (iter_While < 10) { System.out.print(iter_While + " "); // Increment the counter // Iterated 10 times, iter_While 0,1,2...9 iter_While++; } System.out.println("iter_While Value: " + iter_While);

Output:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 iter_While Value: 10